The feeling of shortness of breath accompanied by cardiovascular disease arising from left ventricular failure of the heart is commonly referred to as cardiac asthma or cardiac asthma. It is a symptom of serious, life-threatening heart disorders and, above all, very burdensome on a daily basis. Learn how to deal with irritating shortness of breath.
Currently, it is believed that understood cardiac asthma is not a disease in itself, so in professional medical language, the term “cardiac asthma” is rarely used to name ailments associated with diseases of the cardiovascular system. Most often used in this situation, the word shortness of breath in its various variants-for example, resting, exercise, paroxysmal, orthopedic, etc. the Term “asthma” is also most often used in relation to a common lung disease, such as bronchial asthma.
What are the causes of cardiac asthma?
Asthma cardiac, also called “dychawica cardiac,” is attacks of suffocation that are a symptom of left ventricular failure of cheese – a serious, life-threatening disease. Paroxysmal attacks of nocturnal shortness of breath are a consequence of myocardial or regurgitation of valves, for example, the main artery-the aorta. Its symptoms appear mainly after a long time, from the position (usually during sleep) and come to life after the patient. Then it comes to the typical bronchial asthma cardiac nocturnal attacks of suffocation. The above symptoms do not stop after about half an hour from changing the position from lying to sitting or standing. A symptom of left ventricular failure is also an attack of shortness of breath after exercise, which leads to more stress or after eating. To understand the causes of cardiac asthma, it is necessary to know the rules of blood circulation in the human body. In humans, blood flow is carried out in the closed system, in circulation pulmonary (small blood circulation) and systemic (large blood circulation). With a large blood flow, oxygen-containing blood flows from the left ventricle of the heart into the aorta and then reaches individual tissues and organs, providing them with oxygen.
Then the oxygen blood returns to the right atrium of the heart and through the tricuspid valve reaches the right ventricle. In pulmonary circulation, blood enters from the right ventricle flows into the pulmonary trunk, from where it enters the lungs and alveoli, where natlenieniu occurs. Further, through the pulmonary veins is transferred to the left atrium and through the mitral valve enters the left ventricle of the heart. A key role in the occurrence of symptoms of cardiac asthma is played by a violation of small (pulmonary) blood circulation and blood stagnation at this stage. Cardiac asthma can be caused by passive congestion of the lungs as a result of left ventricular failure of the heart, which is unable to pump all the blood flowing to it. It should be remembered that the failure of one ventricle (most often the left) can be accompanied by improper operation of the right ventricle of the heart.
Cardiac asthma is also common in patients with other respiratory diseases: bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obstructive sleep apnea, lung diseases of other etiologies (eg, pneumothorax) and rarely in asthmatics. In addition, there are four types of cardiac asthma:
- cardiac asthma, associated with spasm of the bronchi hyperemic;
- metabolic cardiac asthma resulting from acidosis of the body-for example, after diabetic complications;
- atopic cardiac asthma, associated with bronhospasticescoe changes in people with viral infection;
- cardiac asthma resulting from emotional arousal, called asthma of neurotic origin.
In a patient suffering from cardiac asthma, problems begin in the supine position when there is a sudden attack of coughing that prevents breathing. This is because the flow of venous blood from the circuit into the lungs increases, resulting in a decrease in the vital capacity of the lungs. In addition, the susceptibility of the lungs decreases and, as a consequence, there is intensive work of the respiratory muscles. As a result, there is a dry cough, and the patient often has the impression of choking. The patient is tired through difficult expectoration of sputum, maybe excessive sweating, and his skin is pale, especially the skin of the limbs. In some cases, there may be a feeling of fatigue, decreased performance and even fainting. If the patient expectorates dark pink or brown discharge, you should go to the hospital. The symptoms of cardiac asthma increase mainly at night, and the attacks usually pass about 30 minutes after the change from lying to standing or sitting.
In diseases such as cardiac asthma, the diagnosis is made after cardiological and pulmonological consultation. To treat this disease, it is necessary to diagnose the cause of heart failure, and then cope with the diseases that accompany it, which are most often: hypertension, arrhythmia, coronary heart disease. At the next stage, chronic therapy and treatment of exacerbations are included. Among the drugs used for the treatment of cardiac asthma are: diuretics, having the task of unloading the heart, drugs from the group of inhibitors angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers in left – or prawokomorowej insufficiency. It is very important in this diagnosis treatment is non-pharmacological, consisting in lifestyle changes and the introduction of a healthy diet to minimize the symptoms of the disease.